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Rape: A traumatic crime on women

Rape is an unlawful act that typically involves sexual intercourse carried out forcibly or under threat of injury against a person’s will. Rape is a global problem.

Accurate statistics regarding rape are notoriously difficult to obtain. The biggest complication is that most victims of sexual violence choose not to report it. There are many possible reasons for this decision: embarrassment, victim shaming, fear of reprisal from the rapist, even fear of how the victim’s own family will react.

Rape unlawful sexual activity, most often involving sexual intercourse against the will of the victim through force or the threat of force or with an individual who is incapable of giving legal consent because of minor status, mental illness, intoxication, unconsciousness, or deception. In many jurisdictions, the crime of rape has been subsumed under that of sexual assault. Rape was long considered to be caused by unbridled sexual desire, but it is now understood as a pathological assertion of power over a victim.

  • Some countries consider any non-consensual sex to be rape as per their criminal laws. Others classify a sexual assault as rape only when it exceeds a certain threshold of violence.
  • Some countries acknowledge spousal rape. Others do not.
  • Some countries count any report of rape. Others count only those incidents that proceed to a legal trial.
  • Some countries include non-consensual, and sometimes also consensual, sex with a minor—typically classified as statutory rape—in their rape totals. Other countries place any sex with a minor, consensual or not, into a separate category.
  • Some countries confine the definition of rape to forced vaginal penetration during sexual intercourse only. Others consider any unwarranted penetration of the mouth, anus, or vulva with any body part or object to be rape.
  • Some countries track only male-on-female rape. Others also track female-on-female, female-on-male, and male-on-male rape.
  • Some countries count each individual assault that occurs between the same people (for instance, a child and a relative, or a man and his arranged fiancée) as its own separate incident. Others add all of the incidents together and count them as a single rape.
  • Similarly, some countries count gang rapes as a single incident regardless of how many individuals participated. Others count gang rapes as multiple incidents (one per participant, minus the victim or victims).

Despite these variances in recording and reporting methods, the data nonetheless makes clear that rape is a major issue all over the world.

Rape is often explained or excused as a manifestation of racial, ethnic, and class hatred or as stemming from a patriarchal system in which women are viewed as the property of men. Whatever its origins, rape is a serious crime and is treated as a felony in most countries with common law systems. In many rape trials, the guilt or innocence of the accused hinges on whether or not the victim consented to sexual intercourse. The determination of consent often can lead to distressing cross examination of rape victims in court. As a result, many rape victims choose not to report the crime to police or refuse to press charges against their assailants. Rape is thus both under reported and under prosecuted. To protect women from humiliating cross-examination, many jurisdictions have adopted rape shield laws, which limit the ability of the defendant’s rape lawyer in Hamilton area to introduce the accuser’s sexual history as evidence.

Hostility toward women 

Rapists often see women as sex objects who are there to fulfill men’s sexual needs. They tend to hold false beliefs, often described as rape myths.  For instance, a rapist can believe that if a woman says no, she really means yes, and that she is just playing around or challenging him.

Difference between Rape and Marital Rape

  • The definition of rape codified in includes all forms of sexual assault involving non-consensual intercourse with a woman.
  • However, marital rape is an unwilling sexual intercourse of a woman by her husband immunizes such acts from prosecution.
  • As per current law, a wife is presumed to deliver perpetual consent to have sex with her husband after entering into marital relations.
  • Most countries criminalized marital rape from the late 20th country, but it is still unclear whether marital rape is covered by the ordinary rape laws or there is need for some separate laws on marital rape

Societal Attitude towards Rape victims

  • It is very sad that living in the 21st century and worshipping goddesses, society always looked upon rape victims in a very questionable way as if, it’s their fault and a rape victim should he put at guilty for that violence and offense faced.
  • Victims are continued to be seen as a scar on the fabric of society which bears strong cultured and social norms echoing patriarchal values.
  • Society thinks that rape brings shame to victims and their families which is not so, because the convict of rape should be put to shame.

Are you stuck in a attempted murder case in Hamilton ? You surely need an “Attempted Murder lawyer”

This offence is committed when a person does an act that is more than merely preparatory to the commission of an offence of murder, and at the time the person has the intention to kill.

It is an indictable only offence, which carries a maximum penalty of imprisonment for life.

Murder is the unlawfully taking of the life of another human being with malice aforethought. Malice is a mental state by which there is an express or implied intent to take the life of another person. If the is evidence that the express malice, then it is First Degree Murder. If implied malice, it is Second Degree Murder.

Unlike murder, which requires an intention to kill or cause grievous bodily harm, attempted murder requires evidence of an intention to kill alone.

In a case of this nature, the prosecution will need to prove that the offence happened. They will want to demonstrate that the accused intended to and acted on that intention to murder another. Which your attempted murder lawyer in Hamilton will help you with all the details of crime scene.

Evidence will be noted as:

Calculated planning

Selection and use of a deadly weapon


Severity or duration of attack

Relevant admissions in interview

Murder is the unlawfully taking of the life of another human being with malice aforethought. Malice is a mental state by which there is an express or implied intent to take the life of another person. If the is evidence that the express malice, then it is First Degree Murder. If implied malice, it is Second Degree Murder. A well qualified attempted murder lawyer in Hamilton can help you with the exact degree of the offence.

Attempt to commit murder in (Hamilton) Canada law says :

239 (1) Every person who attempts by any means to commit murder is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

(a) if a restricted firearm or prohibited firearm is used in the commission of the offence or if any firearm is used in the commission of the offence and the offence is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, a criminal organization, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of

(i) in the case of a first offence, five years, and

(ii) in the case of a second or subsequent offence, seven years;

(a.1) in any other case where a firearm is used in the commission of the offence, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of four years; and

(b) in any other case, to imprisonment for life.

What Is A Bail Bond & How Do They Work?

Chances are you will have to get a bail bond to get out of jail if you or your loved one has been arrested for any type of serious crime. While you might imagine standing before a judge who is banging their gavel and announcing “Bail is set at 1 million,” bail bonds don’t quite work this way. You may have also seen television commercials about bail bonds, but unless you’ve directly dealt with the issue of posting bail, you may find that you need a brush up on your knowledge about bail bonds.

The Meaning of “Bail”

Bail constitutes an agreement between you, the defendant, and the court. As the defendant, you agree to post a specific amount of money in exchange for the assurance that you’ll return to court for your scheduled court date. Upon appearing in court as scheduled, and as stated in the bail bond agreement, you get your money back.As an example, if the court sets bail at $15,000, this means you can pay $15,000 to the court in order to be released from jail. Once you return to court on your specified date, you’re able to get your money back. You’ll get your money back even if you’ve been convicted at your trial. However, you don’t show up for even one of your court dates, you will immediately forfeit your $15,000 and a warrant for your arrest will be issued. If you can’t pay the bail the court has set, you won’t be able to get released from jail. Therefore, you will have to remain in jail until the date the court has set for your trial.Not being able to post your bail can be a difficult and stressful situation. It means you may have to remain in jail for months between the time of your arrest and the beginning of your trial. Because of this, posting bail usually becomes your first priority after being arrested. Therefore, this is the reason people turn to bail bonds as a means to be released from jail.

How Bail Bonds Work

Bail bonds are similar to personal loans. After putting down a small percentage for the total amount, a bail bondsman or agent, gives you the rest of the money needed for your bail. Like a loan officer, this bail bondsman or agent is similar to the lender of a personal loan.As an example, if your bail is $15,000, you or a family member would be required to make a deposit of $2,000. The bail bondsman or agent would then give you the $15,000 bail needed for you to “post bail.” Most bail bond companies also will require you to provide them with some type of collateral in order to get the remaining money needed for your bail bond. Collateral is usually a deed to your house, item of jewelry, or car. This collateral is used in order to secure the bail bonds’ loan in case you don’t show up at your appointed court date, in which case you would not get your money back. After your trial is over, and you receive your money back from the court, the money is returned to bail bond company you received your bail from.Due to the fact that this is a financial risk the bail bondsman and bail bond company take because of this loan, they will often take additional precautions to make sure you attend all of your court dates. The bail bondsman wants to make sure his or her company receives back all the bail money it loaned you. As a result of these precautions, bail bond companies will frequently do the following:

  • Prefer a relative or friend put up the necessary collateral for your bond. This is because you will then be less likely to miss a court date since your relative’s or friend’s house or property is on the line in for your bail bond.
  • Call you before each court date in order to remind your about your upcoming trial.
  • Require you to make periodic check-ins at their bail bond office to make sure you haven’t left town.

Like most defendants, you will probably agree that these precautions are a small prices to pay in order to be able to stay out of jail while waiting for a trial date or during your trial.

What is the difference between white collar and blue collar crime?

Have you ever wondered what the differences are between white-collar crime and blue-collar crime? Knowing the differences between the two can be vital because there are different types of punishments for different types of crimes. Recognizing what type of crime you have committed can better help you understand what type of punishment you may be dealt. Our criminal defense attorneys Hamiltonare here to explain the differences between white-collar crime and blue-collar crime.We know how to properly investigate these cases and build a case that minimizes the impact of the charges on our clients. If you find yourself in this sort of situation, call us for your free consultation today.

White-Collar Crime VS. Blue-Collar Crime

White Collar Crime

To start things off, you must have an understanding of what white-collar crime and blue-collar crime are. White collar crime is typically non-violent and motivated by a want for financial gain. There are many examples of white-collar crime, which include:

  • Fraud
  • Embezzlement
  • Public Corruption
  • Mortgage Fraud
  • Money Laundering
  • Securities Fraud
  • Tax Evasion

Where Does the Term “White-Collar Crime” Come From?

It is known that the term “white-collar crime” came about in 1939. President Edwin H. Sutherland gave a presidential address titled “White-Collar Criminality.” The term “white-collar crime” was commonly used after that.

Blue-Collar Crime

Typically, white collar crimes are committed by citizens that are in a “higher” social class, whereas blue-collar crimes are committed by people from a “lower” social class.  Some examples of blue collar crimes may include:

Where Does the Term “Blue-Collar Crime” Come From?

The term “blue collar crime” was created in the 1920s.  It was meant to refer to Americans who performed manual labor jobs. Often they would wear darker clothing to make the stains that occurred at their jobs less noticeable. Many would wear uniforms that had “blue-collars.” Typically, these workers were paid a low hourly wage.

Many of the felony cases we handle involve charges of assault, battery or other violent crimes. Our Lebanon assault charge defense attorneys have successfully represented clients against a broad range of first and second-degree assault charges.

We also defend clients against all other types of felony charges, including the following:

  • Felony DWI
  • Drug offenses, including trafficking, distribution, manufacturing, and cultivation
  • Violent crimes, including manslaughter, murder, kidnapping, carjacking and domestic violence
  • Sex offenses, including rape, sexual assault of a child and child pornography
  • White collar crimes, including embezzlement and identity theft

If you have any questions or need a skilled criminal defense attorney, call us to set up a free consultation today.


Hamilton’s Guns & Gangs Lawyer

A major problem for decent people living their everyday lives is the take over of towns and cities by violent gangs. This is usually compounded by weakness on the part of the authorities or, as now, fear of offending Political Correctness. This allows the gangs to develop and move into elicit businesses and corrupt more young followers and harm innocent members of the public. The massive and extremely violent LA gangs are infamous throughout the world but there is a similar proliferation in England and ignoring them does a lot more harm than dealing with the early manifestations.

Firearm-related homicides in Canada have been steadily increasing, reaching a total of 223 in 2016, 44 more than the previous year. Shootings have now become the most common method of homicide, surpassing homicide by stabbing and beating. Gang-related homicides involving guns are no exception. In 2016 alone, police reported 141 gang-related homicides, 45 more than in 2015. Since 2013, gang-related homicides in Canada’s largest cities have almost doubled.

In November 2017, the federal government announced approximately $327.6 million over five years, starting in 2018–19, and $100 million annually thereafter, in new federal funding to tackle the increase in gun related violence and gang activity in Canada. This initiative will bring together federal, provincial and territorial efforts to support community-level prevention and enforcement efforts, build and leverage unique federal expertise and resources to advance intelligence related to the illegal trafficking of firearms, and invest in border security to interdict illicit goods including guns and drugs. Funding would also be provided to Indigenous organizations to help build capacity through education, outreach and research, addressing the unique needs of Indigenous communities and urban populations. The Initiative will help reduce gun and gang violence so that Canadians can feel safe in their communities.

Summit on Gun and Gang Violence

On March 7, 2018, the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada hosted a Summit on Gun and Gang Violence, to engage stakeholders and provide them an opportunity to share challenges, opportunities and best practices in the fight against gun crime and in combating the deadly effects of guns and gangs in communities across Canada. The Summit was attended in person and via webcast by over 180

experts from law enforcement, Indigenous, youth and community organizations, mayors from large municipalities and representatives from most  provinces and territories..

Ontario is committed to reducing gun violence and the dismantling of gangs by increasing local prevention, enforcement and prosecution efforts across the province.  As part of our strategy, we are providing additional tools and resources to support our police services and justice partners. Some examples include:

  • a new provincial gun and gang support unit that will support gun and gang investigations and prosecutions, and will improve province-wide coordination
  • a dedicated Gun and Gang Specialized Investigations Fund to support major investigations involving multiple police services to target organized crime areas that fuel gang operations such as drug, gun and human trafficking
  • increased corrections intelligence and security with enhanced training to correctional staff on the identification of security threats, improved intelligence reporting and court preparation, as well as specific challenges such as contraband smuggling

Ontario is also investing in prevention programs that provide meaningful alternatives for communities and youth at high-risk of involvement in gangs, gun violence and victimization, to help break the cycle of offending. These programs will help to identify root causes and risk factors of violence, prevent criminal activity, as well as support at-risk youth and young adults with alternatives to entering gangs or exit strategies to those already involved in gang activity.

Guns & gangs lawyer in hamilton have defended numerous individuals who have been targeted by the Toronto Police Service’s Gun and Gang Task Force. Most recently, we defended an Accused involved in Project Fusion.

Project Fusion

In 2010, we represented an Accused who was arrested as one of numerous suspects in a police round up known as “Project Fusion” – A multi-jurisdictional operation – led by the Toronto Police Service’s Gun and Gang Task Force. One-hundred and twenty five people were arrested in what police described as “an operation believed to be the largest of its kind in Ontario. Project Fusion involved over 1,000 officers from across the province. It began in mid-2008 and focused on a series of violent crimes dating back to 2003. It is alleged that those involved are leaders, members and/or associates who participate in two criminal organizations that operate in concert with each other, known as the “MNE” (Markham Road/Eglinton Avenue East), and the “400 Crew” (400/McCowan Road). A total of 100 homes and 61 vehicles were the targets of the search warrants across Toronto, as well as in York, Peel and Durham.

Felony Theft Lawyers

What is Felony Theft?

Theft in general is a property crime that involves the unlawful taking of another person’s property, with the intent to permanently deprive that person of their property. Theft is commonly used as a blanket term to refer to many different crimes, such as grand theft, grand theft auto, larceny, receiving stolen property, shoplifting merchandise, embezzlement and robbery.

Theft can be considered a misdemeanor or a felony. Whether a crime is considered felony theft may depend on the value of the stolen property. Your state will have laws setting out this amount. For example, if you live in a state where it considers theft to be a felony where $1000 or more is stolen and you steal a car worth $2000, you can be charged with a felony.

What are Some Different Types of Felony Theft?

There are several different types of theft that are frequently classified as felonies. They may depend on the value of the property, as noted above, or on the circumstances surrounding the crime. Some examples of felony theft crimes are as follows:

  • Grand Theft: Grand theft is the unlawful taking of items or money valued at a certain amount, generally over $1,000. In comparison, regular theft would be considered the unlawful taking of items or money valued less than $1,000. Again, this amount will depend on your state’s laws;
  • Grand Theft Auto: Grand theft auto is the unlawful taking of another person’s vehicle without their permission;
  • Larceny: Larceny involves taking someone’s stolen property to deprive that person’s ability to use the property. It is often used interchangeably with the term grand theft, depending on your state’s laws;
  • Receiving Stolen Property: Receiving stolen property does not require someone to actually steal or have the intent to steal. Rather, a person can merely receive property that they knew or should have known was stolen and be charged with this crime;
  • Embezzlement: Embezzlement involves the taking of funds. It requires a special fiduciary relationship between the victim and defendant in which the victim entrusts the defendant with access to and responsibility for funds. The defendant then takes the funds for their own personal use and gain. Embezzled funds are often work-related and were to be only used for specific purposes not related to personal use by the defendant; and
  • Robbery: Robbery is defined as the taking of another’s belongings by use of force or immediate threat of force. This crime combines violence with theft.

Keep in mind that felony theft can involve both tangible and intangible objects, such as: money, property, services, individual identities or credit card data, documents and records.

Do I Need to Hire a Lawyer if I am Facing Felony Theft Charges?

Felony theft crimes are serious offenses that can carry severe penalties. Hiring a criminal defense lawyer can help you with the success of your case. You may have a public defender appointed to you as well.

A lawyer can assist you with evaluating the strength of the prosecutor’s case and determine how to proceed with defending against the charges. This could include asserting a defense, negotiating a plea agreement and representing your interests at trial.


Sexual Violence Myths & Facts

There is a lot of information that circulates about sexual violence and the people affected by it. The following myths are common and can impact survivors of assault or abuse, as well as the behavior and effectiveness of friends, family, medical, social service and law enforcement personnel. This sheet will help clarify some of the most common myths.

Myth: Sexual assault is an act of lust and passion that can’t be controlled.

FactSexual assault is about power and control and is not motivated by sexual gratification.

Myth: If a victim of sexual assault does not fight back, they must have thought the assault was not that bad or they wanted it.

Fact: Many survivors experience tonic immobility or a “freeze response” during an assault where they physically cannot move or speak.

Myth: A lot of victims lie about being raped or give false reports.

FactOnly 2-8% of rapes are falsely reported, the same percentage as for other felonies.

Myth: A person cannot sexually assault their partner or spouse.

Fact: Nearly 1 in 10 women have experienced rape by an intimate partner in their lifetime.

Myth: Sexual assaults most often occur in public or outdoors.

Fact: 55% of rape or sexual assault victimizations occur at or near the victim’s home, and 12% occur at or near the home of a friend, relative, or acquaintance.

Myth: Rape does not happen that often.

Fact: There is an average of 293,066 victims ages 12 or older of rape and sexual assault each year in the U.S. This means 1 sexual assault occurs every 107 seconds.

Myth: People that have been sexually assaulted will be hysterical and crying.

Fact: Everyone responds differently to trauma- some may laugh, some may cry, and others will not show any emotions.

Myth: Men are not victims of sexual violence.

Fact: 1.5% of all men have been raped and 47% of bisexual men have experienced some form of unwanted sexual contact in their lifetime.4

Myth: Wearing revealing clothing, behaving provocatively, or drinking a lot means the victim was “asking for it”.

Fact: The perpetrator selects the victim- the victim’s behavior or clothing choices do not mean that they are consenting to sexual activity.

Myth: If a parent teaches a child to stay away from strangers they won’t get raped.

Fact: 60% of child sexual abuse cases are perpetrated by someone the child knows outside the family, and 30% are assaulted by family members.

Myth: Being sexually assaulted by someone of the same gender can make a person gay or lesbian.

Fact: The assault is typically not based on the sexual preferences of the victim or rapist, and therefore does not necessarily change the victim’s sexual orientation.

Myth: People with disabilities are at low risk for sexual assault.

Fact: People with disabilities are victims of sexual assault twice as much as people without disabilities.6

Myth: Prostitutes cannot be raped because they are selling sex.

Fact: Prostitutes have the right to give and withhold consent to any sexual activity, and therefore, can be raped just like anyone else.

 Myth: Getting help is expensive for survivors of assault.

Fact: Services such as counseling and advocacy are offered for free or at a low cost by sexual assault service providers.

 Myth: There is nothing we can do to prevent sexual violence.

Fact: There are many ways you can help prevent sexual violence including intervening as a bystander to protect someone who may be at risk.


Your Attorney In Drug Violation Cases

While other states are relaxing their stance toward marijuana possession, this is not the case in Indiana. Police officers and prosecutors strictly enforce state drug laws to break the cycle of addiction and crime that often accompanies drug use. A drug charge is a serious matter, which is why you should seek out knowledgeable legal support if you have been arrested for committing a drug crime.

We have criminal defense attorney and skilled trial lawyer. We founded our firm to provide economical and aggressive representation to individuals charged with misdemeanor and felony drug offenses. We have focused solely on criminal law for nearly two decades in Hamilton County. We use my local insight and legal understanding to obtain favorable results for my clients.

Helping You Challenge Drug Charges

Our firm is qualified to handle a range of drug violations, including:

  • Simple possession of marijuana, cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine
  • Possession with intent to sell, manufacturing or trafficking of marijuana, cocaine, heroin or methamphetamines
  • Prescription drug offenses, including doctor shopping, prescription drug fraud and unlawful possession

As your legal ally, We will study the events surrounding your arrest to make sure that your rights were not violated. If police officers did not follow appropriate procedure during a search or questioning, We will use the law to hold them accountable.

We can also connect you with the best substance abuse counselors so that we can address the underlying disease responsible for your charges and break the cycle of abuse, arrest and incarceration. We will create a custom defensive strategy based on your unique situation.

Having a drug charge on your criminal record can affect your life long after your trial is over. Before you consider accepting a plea, you need to understand the impact this decision may have. As your lawyer and advocate, We will examine all options and explain them to you so that you can achieve the best possible outcome.

In the beginning, you will receive legal consultation to help you understand your situation completely and make the right decision at an early stage. When you choose us, the work on your case will begin right away. It is our belief that the key to success is a detailed strategy. Your lawyer will study your case meticulously and analyze it in depth to develop this strategy. It will include a full set of legal tools necessary for your defence. It will also provide for all challenges that may arise.

An important part of the strategy is your preparation for the hearings. You will receive all the help and support that you require. It is our commitment to give you confidence as well despite the difficult circumstances. Your Drug Lawyer Hamilton will use all of their talent and skill to defend you in the most effective possible way. Expect the professional to be highly motivated and to work with great desire for victory. Every effort will be made to achieve the desired result for you.

For receiving legal help in case of drug offence timely, contact us now.


Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs

Since the mid-20th century, gang violence in this country has become widespread—all 50 states and the District of Columbia report gang problems, and reports have increased for 5 of the past 7 years. Despite the steady growth in the number and size of gangs across the United States and the criminal behavior and violence they spawn, little is known about the dynamics that drive gangs and how to best combat their growth. For instance, no consensus exists on how gangs form, and few gang prevention programs have been rigorously evaluated.

The recent Juvenile Justice bulletin (PDF, 24 Pages), published by the U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs (OJJDP), presents a compilation of current research on gangs, including data on the state of gang problems in the United States today, why youth join gangs, the risk factors and attractions that increase youth’s propensity to join gangs, and how gangs form. The author examines how community members can begin to assess their gang problems and provide necessary enhancements to prevention and intervention activities. The bulletin also describes a number of effective and promising programs that may help prevent youth delinquency and gang violence.

The following are some key findings:

  • Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect, money, or because a friend is in a gang.
  • Youth are at higher risk of joining a gang if they engage in delinquent behaviors, are aggressive or violent, experience multiple caretaker transitions, have many problems at school, associate with other gang-involved youth, or live in communities where they feel unsafe and where many youth are in trouble.
  • To prevent youth from joining gangs, communities must strengthen families and schools, improve community supervision, train teachers and parents to manage disruptive youth, and teach students interpersonal skills.

No programs have been developed specifically to prevent gangs from emerging. In the meantime, to prevent youth from joining gangs, communities must employ multiple strategies and services, including:

  • Addressing elevated risk factors for joining a gang.
  • Strengthening families.
  • Reducing youth’s conflicts.
  • Improving community-level supervision of youth.
  • Providing training for teachers on how to manage disruptive students.
  • Providing training for parents of disruptive and delinquent youth.
  • Reviewing and softening school “zero tolerance” policies to reduce suspensions and expulsions.
  • Ensuring that punitive sanctions target delinquent gang behaviors, not gang apparel, signs, and symbols.
  • Providing tutoring for students who are performing poorly in school.
  • Increasing adult supervision of students after school.
  • Providing interpersonal skills training to students to help resolve conflicts.
  • Providing a center for youth recreation and referrals for services.
  • Providing gang awareness training for school personnel, parents, and students.
  • Teaching students that gangs can be dangerous.
  • Providing training for school resource officers in mediating conflicts.

A balance of prevention, intervention, and suppression strategies is important for success in any community. Prevention programs target youth at risk of gang involvement and help reduce the number of youth who join gangs. Intervention programs and strategies provide sanctions and services for younger youth who are actively involved in gangs to push them away from gangs. Law enforcement suppression strategies and intensive services target and rehabilitate the most violent gangs and older, criminally active gang members.

Guides for assessing community gang problems and implementing intervention and prevention strategies, part of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s Comprehensive Gang Model, are available on the National Gang Center Web site.


What is sexual assault?

Sexual assault’ covers a wide range of unwanted sexual behaviours that are often used by offenders as a way to assert power and control over their victims. There are many myths around what constitutes sexual assault, so find out the facts. If you’ve been sexually assaulted, you might experience a range of emotions and it’s important to know there are support services that can help you.

This can help if:

  • you want to know what sexual assault is
  • you want to know the myths and facts around sexual assault
  • you’ve experienced sexual assault and want support.
Teeanger with hoodie

What is sexual assault?

Sexual assault is any unwanted sexual behaviour that makes a person feel uncomfortable, threatened or scared. It covers:

  • Rape: forced, unwanted sex or sexual acts.
  • Child sexual abuse: using power over a child to involve that child in sexual activity.
  • Indecent assault: indecent behaviour before, during or after an assault.

Why do people sexually assault others?

Sexual assault isn’t always about offenders getting pleasure from sex. It can also be about them enjoying asserting power and control over someone. Some offenders have been abused themselves, but this isn’t always the case. Sexual assault is a serious crime and is never the fault of the victim.

Myths and facts around sexual assault

Myth: Only women can be sexually assaulted

Fact: Both men and women can be sexually assaulted. The offender can also be any gender, and of any sexual orientation.

Myth: Women often falsely accuse men of sexual assault to get attention

Fact: Most sexual assault reports are truthful. Many victims of sexual assault – both females and males – don’t report it for fear of not being believed.

Myth: Most rapists are strangers

Fact: Most offenders are known to the assault victim.

Myth: It’s not sexual assault if you’re a couple or married

Fact: Unwanted sexual activity in any relationship is assault.

Myth: If you’re drunk or wearing sexy clothing, you’re partly responsible

Fact: Sexual assault survivors are never, under any circumstances, responsible for somebody choosing to assault them.

How sexual assault might affect you

Everyone reacts differently to sexual assault. All of the following responses are normal:

Shock and denial

You might think, ‘Did this really happen to me?’ or ‘Why me?’, and feel unable to accept that it actually happened.


You might experience fear of the offender, of being alone, or of not being believed.


You might find that you’re unable to talk about the assault, or to describe what it feels like to have been assaulted, out of fear of being judged.


You might feel unsafe or unable to relax.


You might feel sad or depressed.

Guilt and blame

You might ask yourself, ‘Why did I go there/allow it/not fight back?’

Low self-esteem

You might lose self-confidence, and feel ‘unworthy’, ashamed or ‘dirty’.


You might want to be alone, and to isolate yourself from family and friends.

Nightmares and flashbacks

You might have images and memories of the assault intrude on your daily life and sleep.

Mood swings

You might find that your mood changes quickly from anger and rage, to tears and despair, and back again.

Loss of confidence

You might worry about your ability to do your work or study, or lack confidence with friends or your partner.

Loss of trust

You might find it hard to trust people in your social circle or family.

What to do if you’ve been sexually assaulted

If you’ve been sexually assaulted, it’s not something you have to live with on your own. Here are some things you can do straight away:

Ensure that you’re safe

If you’re in immediate danger, or you’re worried about your safety, contact emergency services on 000 immediately and try to get to somewhere safe.

Talk to someone

Find someone you can talk to, such as a friend, family member, counsellor or youth worker. Contact an organisation in your state or territory that can give you relevant information on seeking help.

Get confidential help

Call the confidential 24-hour 1800 RESPECT line to talk with experienced counsellors. Have a look at sexual assault support for more information.

Get medical help

If you’ve been sexually assaulted, medical support is essential. If you can, try to get to a hospital or health centre where they can give you appropriate medical care.

Trust yourself

If someone has assaulted you, you may not feel confident about what to do next. Trust your instincts. Remember that it’s never okay for someone to assault you for any reason.

Know your legal rights

The laws relating to sexual assault vary from state to state. To find out about your rights, check out the criminal defence lawyer website.